Malaysia and San Marino Ratify Kigali, Pushing Ratifications to 109

The Republic of San Marino and Malaysia have both ratified the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, becoming the 107th and 108th country, respectively, plus the European Union (EU), to ratify the global agreement to reduce HFC emissions.

San Marino, a European micro-state surrounded by Italy, ratified on October 20, and Malaysia’s ratification became official on October 21, according to the United Nation’s website. These additions mean that 55% of the parties to the Montreal protocol have now adopted Kigali. 

The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol was enacted by 197 countries (plus the EU) on October 15, 2016. It entered into force on January 1, 2019. Its goal is to achieve at least an 80% reduction in HFC consumption by 2047.

As a developed nation, San Marino is obligated to cut production and use of HFCs by 40% in 2024, compared to the average between 2011 and 2013, leading up to an 85% cut by 2036.

As part of the Article 5 (developing countries) Group 1, Malaysia is required to freeze HFC production and use in 2024, with an 80% reduction by 2045. 

Fully implemented, the Kigali Amendment would avoid up to 0.4°C (0.7°F) increase in the global temperature by the end of the century, according to UN estimates.

For an in-depth look at the Kigali Amendment, click here.